Types & Stages | Phoenix CyberKnife Radiation & Oncology Center

Prostate Cancer: Types & Stages

Phoenix Prostate Cancer Types & Stages

The radiation oncologists at Phoenix CyberKnife and Radiation Oncology Center are experts at treating prostate cancer using the state-of-the-art CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System. CyberKnife is a Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) that is clinically proven as effective, and in most cases more even more effective, than surgery or conventional radiation treatments. Not only is it effective, CyberKnife treatments for prostate cancer are completed in only one short treatment per day for four or five days. Traditional radiation treatments can last daily for up to 45 days. CyberKnife is also often recommended to treat metastasized prostate cancer and recurrent prostate cancer.

Most prostate tumors develop from the gland cells in the prostate and are called Adenocarcinoma. These slow-growing tumors comprise about 90% of prostate cancers and can be cured, when treated before metastasizing to other parts of the body. With CyberKnife, high doses of radiation are beamed at multiple angles directly to the prostate gland, adjusting for even the slightest movement of the prostate or patient. The unbeatable precision helps reduce side effects and keep nearby vital organs healthy and functioning properly.

The Development of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer occurs when the prostate gland cells undergo a microscopic change called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). About 50 percent of all men have these PIN cells by the time they are 50, but only high-grade PINs are cause for concern. This tells doctors that you might have a higher chance of developing one of the different types of prostate cancer.

Prostate Tumor Stages

Doctors use a tumor’s stage to help develop your treatment plan. The most common way to determine these stages is by using a grading system based on the tumor size (T), the number of nodes the cancer has affected (N), and whether the cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body (M). Larger tumors that have affected more nodes and spread to more areas of your body are assigned higher levels and those are then combined into stages.

They stages of prostate cancer are:

  • Stage I - A tumor found only in the prostate that is so small it can’t be seen in imaging or felt with a rectal exam. Size is less than one-half of one of the four lobe of the prostate. PSA is less than 10.
  • Stage II - The tumor is still only inside the prostate, but has grown some.
    • Stage IIa - The tumor has grown to between one-half of one lobe and two lobes.
    • Stage IIb - The tumor has grown to the size of two lobes of the prostate.
  • Stage III - In Stage III, the cancer has spread outside the prostate to adjacent tissue, such as the seminal vesicles. It has not spread to any lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV - In this stage, the cancer has metastasized outside the prostate and adjacent tissue to other parts of the body including lymph nodes, the bones, liver, or lungs.
  • Recurrent - This stage of cancer is used when the cancer returns to the originally infected place after treatment. Once that happens, doctors run more tests to establish a current stage.

Prostate Tumor Types

  • Acinar Adenocarcinoma. This slow-growing type of cancer develops in the glandular organ of the prostate and accounts for more than 90% of all prostate cancers in the U.S. There is an excellent chance for curing adenocarcinoma when caught early.
  • Rare Prostate Cancer Types. The remaining 10% of prostate cancers are extremely rare. Because doctors have not had as much exposure testing treatments on them, they do not have as much research on treatment options. These rare prostate cancers include:
    • Small cell carcinoma:  Fast-growing and hard-to-detect, this type of cancer made of small round cells has usually reached advanced stages before it is treated.
    • Squamous cell carcinoma: Another destructive form of cancer that grows from the squamous cells, which are the flat cells covering the prostate gland. This cancer grows quickly and doesn’t show an increase in PSA levels.
    • Transitional cell carcinomas: This cancer advances in the bladder or urethra and then spreads into the prostate.
    • Ductal adenocarcinoma. This quick-spreading cancer starts in the cells that line the ducts of the prostate gland. It’s often not diagnosed until it is in advanced stages.
    • Carcinoid of the prostate. These slow-growing tumors are very rare and start from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is made up of specialized nerve and gland cells.
    • Prostatic sarcoma and sarcomatoid cancer. This type of rare cancer starts from the smooth muscle cells of the prostate. The most common type in adults is called leiomyosarcoma and usually occurs in men between the ages of 35 and 60. Twenty-five percent of cases have metastasized to other parts of the body by the time this cancer is diagnosed. Prostatic sarcoma remains in the prostate for a viable period of time before it spreads locally to the bladder, rectum or perineum. Over more time the tumor will spread to distant locations like the lungs, brain, bones or liver. The most common sites of distant metastasis are the lungs.
  • Metastatic Prostate Cancer. When a cancer that originates in the prostate, and then spreads to other parts of the body, it is called metastatic prostate cancer. The cancer cell makeup is the same as prostate cancer cells so it is treated as a type of prostate cancer. The most common sites for prostate cancer to travel is to the adrenal gland, bone, liver, and lungs.

Call Phoenix CyberKnife For Your Free Phone Consultation!

Don’t wait to find out how CyberKnife can treat your prostate cancer quickly and effectively. Call us today at (602) 441-3845 with your questions or to make your first appointment. We’re happy to discuss the types of prostate cancer and the best treatment option for each type of cancer based on your individual case. You can also reach out to us using our convenient online message form. One of our board certified radiation oncologists will get back to you within 24 hours. Take control of your life and your cancer care by calling Phoenix CyberKnife today.

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