Types & Grades | Phoenix CyberKnife Radiation & Oncology Center

Phoenix CyberKnife - Brain Cancer - Types and Grades

Phoenix Brain Cancer Types and Grades

Being diagnosed with brain cancer is one of the most difficult life challenges you may face. Not only is it one of the most critical types of cancer, there are more than 100 different types of brain tumors and many of them are treated best by different methods or combination of methods. The board certified radiation oncologists at Phoenix CyberKnife are here to help. We can explain the variety of treatment options in a way that will enable you to make the best choices when it comes to your brain cancer treatment. Our comprehensive cancer treatment center offers the clinically-proven CyberKnife radiosurgery system as well as many other effective radiation therapy treatments to help deliver the best outcomes for your particular situation.

Brain Tumor Grades

The seriousness of brain tumors are categorized differently than other types of cancer using “grades” instead of “stages.” Stages usually include the size and the distance the cancer has spread from the original tumor. But brain tumors seldom travel, or metastasize, to other parts of the body like most other types of cancer. So doctors use stages to describe the tumor’s aggressiveness based on their examination of the cancerous cells under a microscope as follows:.

  • Grade I – The tumor is benign. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells. This grade is the least aggressive.
  • Grade II – The tumor is malignant. The cells look less normal but they, generally, are slow growing cells
  • Grade III – The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing (anaplastic).
  • Grade IV – The malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly.

Brain Tumor Types

Not only are brain tumors treated differently when it comes to grading, brain cancer also has more different types of tumors than most cancers. There are many different types of cells that reside in your brain and a when a cancer grows from one of these normal cells it falls into the general category of primary tumors. These types of cancers rarely spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. However, other types of cancer, such as lung, breast and colon cancer, often metastasize to the brain. These types of cancer are called secondary tumors.

Types of Primary Brain Tumors With Common Treatments

Within the category or primary tumors, (those that originate in the brain,) there are more than 120 different types, based on the different types of cells that the cancer came from, and each may require a unique type of treatment. The Phoenix CyberKnife radiation oncologists are experts in treating all types of brain tumors. Some of these tumors can be benign, or noncancerous. Benign tumors grow more slowly and, even though they aren’t cancerous, they can still pose grave danger to you by inhibiting the normal functions of your brain. Other tumors can be fast-growing, dangerous malignant tumors. These cancerous tumors don’t usually spread to other parts of the body, but they can spread into the normal functioning parts of your brain. The most common types of primary brain tumors are:

  • Astrocytoma. This type of tumor emerges from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes and most often occurs in the cerebrum. Astrocytoma tumors do not usually spread outside the brain or spinal cord and usually will not affect other organs. Astrocytomas are the most common glioma and often have clearly defined outlines on diagnostic images. They sometimes have diffuse zones of infiltration (e.g. low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma) that can arise in any location in the central nervous system (CNS), but they can have a tendency to progress to more advanced grades
  • GlioBlastoma Multiforme (GBM). The most common form of astrocytoma and it is most often malignant. Primary GBM grow, then spread to other parts of the brain very quickly. They can become very large before symptoms occur, which often begin abruptly with seizures. Surgical removal is the mainstay of treatment for this type of aggressive tumor if it can be done without unacceptable neurologic injury. Since GBM is extremely infiltrative, complete surgical removal is impossible. Radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are usually used in addition to surgery and can double the median survival of patients compared to supportive care alone.
  • Meningioma. A tumor arises in the meninges, which are three thin layers of tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This type of tumor is usually benign, but can be malignant, and generally is a slow growing tumor. Meningiomas can happen at any age,even to children, but most frequently arise in older women. Meningiomas may not require immediate treatment and can be observed with MRI scans. If the patient has symptoms or the tumor is in a critical area treatment is usually recommended. Patients are often treated with surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and radiation therapy.
  • Oligodendroglioma. This is a rare, slow-growing tumor that occurs in the cells that make up the fatty substance that covers and protects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. It is sometimes referred to as an oligodendroglial tumor. Oligodendroglioma can occur in adults and children, and the average age of diagnosis is 35. These tumors are often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and will often respond well to chemotherapy as well.
  • Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma). A slow growing almost always benign tumor that arises from the cells that cover the vestibulocochlear nerve. This tumor has symptoms of hearing loss, balance problems, or ringing in the ears (tinnitus). The tumor is located on the nerve connected to the hearing. While removal by surgery has great tumor control rates, it can lead to hearing loss, facial numbness, or facial weakness. Multiple studies show outstanding tumor control rates with stereotactic radiosurgery with a far reduced risk of side effects.
  • Paraganglioma (Glomus Jugularis or chemodectomas). These tumors are rare, most often benign tumors most commonly affecting the base of skull and neck region. These tumors are often treated with surgical resection, radiation therapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • Medulloblastoma. While this tumor can be seen in adults it is often in diagnosed in children and teenagers and is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. Disease can often times involve the spinal cord, therefore treatment is often directed to the brain and spinal cord. Although less frequent, this tumor can spread throughout the body. This tumor is often treated with a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy and less often stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • Ependymoma. This tumor forms from cells lining the ependymal lining of ventricular system of the brain and spinal cord. This tumor is also often seen in children. Surgery is often followed by radiation or stereotactic radiosurgery.
  • Pituitary Adenoma. These tumors are almost always benign. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica which is near the optic nerve and optic chiasm. Tumors that progress in this location can lead to loss of vision. These tumors can make hormones in excess that can lead to symptoms. In many instances these tumors may not require treatment and in some instances can be treated with medication. Often times patients will require surgery, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery or a combination of treatments.
  • Central Neurocytoma. These tumors are rare and most commonly behave as benign tumors. They are often found in young adults but can be seen in children and the elderly.They usually form in the brain cavities and often result in swelling of the brain. Most patients will be treated with surgery and radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery

Types of Secondary Brain Metastases

  • Lung Cancer Metastases. Cancer that metastasizes to the brain most often originates in the lungs for both men and women. You usually find multiple brain tumors within nine months of the time the lung tumor is diagnosed.
  • Breast Cancer Metastases. This is the second most common type of brain metastases in women. These brain tumors often don’t show for a few years after the breast cancer is found, but can appear even five or ten years following original breast cancer treatment. Two or more metastatic brain tumors are common.
  • Melanoma Metastases. For men, these are the second most common type of brain metastases and they can metastasize to the brain or the meninges (the covering of the brain and spinal cord). These tumors usually occur several years after the primary melanoma and in multiples. Because these tumors have many blood vessels, they are at risk of bleeding.
  • Colon/Colorectal Metastases. With colon or colorectal cancer, a single tumor tends to metastasize a few years after the first tumor is diagnosed.
  • Kidney/Renal Metastases. Like the colon cancer, this cancer usually moves to the brain as a single tumor within a few years of the primary tumor diagnosis. This type of tumor also has a high chance of bleeding.

Call Phoenix CyberKnife For Your First Consultation

Treating all of the different types of brain tumors is a complex process. The experts at Phoenix CyberKnife are ready to explain your treatment options in detail. Whether it’s the results-proven CyberKnife radiosurgery system that is best for you, or another type of effective internal or external radiation, our comprehensive cancer center can perform the radiation treatment for your unique situation. Call us at (602) 441-3845 today for your first appointment, or reach out to us using our convenient online message form with your questions or appointment requests. We look forward to working with you and your team of physicians to give you the best care and treatment possible.

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